Origins of Tamils?[Where are Tamil people from?] PART :81

Compiled by: Kandiah Thillaivinayagalingam]
[Skeleton of a 12-year-old Sumerian boy, from the Pergamon   Museum in Berlin.]
we don’t know where sumerians genes came from.We have no idea who their modern descendants would be,and we’ve never been able to test the DNA of Sumerian remains until now.A complete skeleton from the Sumerian capital of Ur,dating back to about 4,500 BCE,was recently rediscovered in the Penn Museum in Philadelphia —Sometimes the best archaeological discoveries aren't made in the field. Scientists at the Penn Museum have re-discovered an important find in their own storage rooms, a complete human skeleton about 6,500 years old. The mystery skeleton had been stored in a coffin-like box for 85 years, all trace of its identifying documentation gone.However,a project to digitize old records from a world-famous excavation brought that documentation,and the history of the skeleton,back to light.This was Unearthed in 1929–30 by Sir Leonard Woolley's joint Penn Museum/British Museum excavation team at the site of Ur in what is now southern Iraq,and belief that its intact teeth may include enough soft tissue to allow DNA testing.This will tell us soon where the first city-builders came from and who their contemporary descendants are.The migration of the Sumerians is one of the great untold stories of human civilization;if we aim to tell it,DNA is the best tool we have.I also should like in passing to note that it is not at all fortuitous that early civilizations which arose in the valleys of the Nile,the Tigris and Euphrates,and lastly of the Indus,bore the marks of black men and the Venetian traveler Marco Polo,who visited India in 1288 and again 1293, referred to The darkest man is here the most highly esteemed and considered better than the others who are not so dark.Let me add that in very truth these people portray and depict their gods and their idols black and their devils white as snow.For they say that God and all the saints are black and the devils are all white.That is why they portray them as I have described"

In truth we now know,based on recent scientific studies of DNA,that modern humanity originated in Africa,that African people are the world's original people,and that all modern humans can ultimately trace their ancestral roots back to Africa.Were it not for the primordial migrations of early African people,humanity would have remained physically Africoid,and the rest of the world outside of the African continent absent of human life.Many anthropologists believe that humans may have migrated out of Africa in waves.More than a million years ago,humanity's primitive ancestors,known as Homo erectus,walked out of Africa to colonize Europe,the Middle East and Asia.On that everyone agrees.Then several hundred thousand years later,some theorize,a second wave of more sophisticated tool-using humans,Homo sapiens,migrated out of Africa and overwhelmed those earlier ancestors.According to that theory,modern humans are descended solely from those especially sophisticated tool-users You may think 'how did they cross oceans to be in different continents?' But the land then was connected and it was only separated after the 'Ice Age'.They may travelled partially by raft/ partially by land,This break from Africa into the wider world occurred around 60,000 to 70,000 years ago.these early beachcombers expanded rapidly along the coast to India,and reached Southeast Asia and Australia by 50,000 years ago.Slightly later,a little after 50,000 years ago,a second group migrated out of Africa,into the Middle East and southern Central Asia.From this inauspicious start came a population that would one day cover almost every landmass on the globe.Around the time that people were first venturing outside the continent,hunting and gathering was still the lifestyle of choice.Humans lived in communities that rarely exceeded a couple of hundred individuals,and social bonds were formed to enable these small bands of people to share food resources and hunt co-operatively. With the evolution of language,these bonds blossomed into the beginnings of society and culture as we know it today.The first moves away from the nomadic huntergatherer way of life came between 14,000 BC and 9500 BC,a time when rainfall was high and the Sahara and North Africa became verdant.It was in these green and pleasant Fertile Crescent lands that stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates,the first farmers were born,and mankind learned to cultivate crops rather than following prey animals from place to place.

PART :82WILL FOLLOW

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