Origins of Tamils?[Where are Tamil people from?] PART :60

[by: Kandiah Thillaivinayagalingam]
The Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan and North India as like sumerian,had developed a Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems,including the reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BC and an early canal irrigation system from 2600 BC.Though the Punjab & Kashmir have an extensive system of canals,We do not know whether this present system is identical to the ancient one which fed the cities of the Indus civilization.However It is certainly unlikely that the Aryans who invaded India about 1700 BC brought the art of irrigation to India,even though the rig Veda mentioned about canals[Kulya],wells[Avata or Avar],dam[sarasi] etc as Vedas were only written after defeated the Indus people.Even though the excellent drainage & sewerage system of these Indus cities was thoroughly studied no further data on the irrigation system that support them are known or any traces of ancient canals were found.Also this apparent lack of any preparation for dry seasons together with this representation of forest-loving animals on the seals seam to point to the view that the rainfall in Sind & the Punjab must have been much heavier.The first known mechanical aid practised in ancient India may be the bucket-wheel or the water wheel in Indus valley.This was supported by the the antiquities unearthed  from the mohenjo-Daro & harapa excavations.Sir John Marshall who studied the pottery evidences from Mohenjo Daro expresses his opinion about the possible use of pottery for water wheels.

His[Sir John Marshall's] argument runs thus the jars that have been
denominated "scared pottery" was made for attachment to an appliance for raising water very similar to the wheel that is used in most parts of near & middle east at the present day.This view simply finds corroboration in the remarks advanced by Ernest Mackay who says that,'Though there is no direct evidence that the water wheel was known to the people of Indus valley the shape & make of the jars found there certainly suggest that they were used on water wheels and this would of course explain why such a number were made & broken'.It is thus quite discernible that some technically advanced devices were put into practical use during that period.
Hence we can concluded that  the water wheel was known to the people of Mohenjo-daro & Harapa and they may used this for irrigation.The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro reveal deep rectangular constructions that were probably the earliest tanks built in India.

[Indus Valley today:Farmers still grow crops in fields beside the Indus River.Notice how the water from the river keeps the crops green.]
Mehrgarh which  is  located near the Bolan Pass,to the west of the Indus River valley and between the Pakistani cities of Quetta,Kalat and now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization.Archaeological digs of the Mehrgarh period sites that is around 7000 B.C. to 3200 B.C have unearthed some of the earliest evidence of farming and husbandry in that region.and also provides a rare insight to life before and during the first stages of the Indus Valley civilization,We find that these Semi-nomadic people of Mehrgarh cultivated crops such as Wheat,barley,jujubes and dates and herded animals such as sheep,goats and cattle developed the earliest farming in the area.This period also saw the first domestication of the elephants.There after,Irrigation was further developed in the Indus Valley Civilization with
[water wheel,on banks of Indus river, Sind,1838]
Sophisticated irrigation and water storage systems as we mentioned above and as a result of this innovation the size and prosperity of the Indus civilization grew.It eventually led to more planned settlements making use of drainage and sewers.Also Archaeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC and Some animals thought to be vital for survival were worshiped.
Beside,some of the toy pictures of the Indus Valley Civilization indicate that they were a proper system of water supply into different houses and places.Mostly,women had the responsibility to supply water into different places.Farmers made good use of water from the rivers.They sowed seeds after the rivers had flooded the fields,as flood water made the soil rich.They planted different crops for winter (which was mild and wet) and summer (which was hot and dry).They were probably the first farmers to take water from underground wells.They may have used river water to irrigate their fields.Their main cultivation products,amongst others,were peas,sesame seed and cotton.They also domesticated wild animals in order to use them for harvesting their farms
[ruins of Kali Bangan]  
There are indications that the techniques of agriculture,irrigation and drainage could have spread from one place to another,between Sumerians & Indus valley civilizations.For instance,the sumerians had developed the plow around 2900 BC,Harappan levels in Kali Bangan[Rajasthan],dated 2450 to 2300BC,have revealed a plowed field with distinct furrows.It is not certain whether the Harappans invented the plough themselves or borrowed it from the Sumerians.Harappans had a well developed technology for constructing masonry wells.According to Marshal,the water tables at Mohenjo-Daro was around 2M deep between 3000 and 2750 BC,so the Indus people could easily have constructed wells and lifted water for irrigation.Originally,water lifting devices were clay or leather bucket on a rope,later a persian wheel/water wheel was used.Also,because the Harappan Civilization was supported by a major river system,it would make sense that fish resources would have been a primary food source for inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization with Farming Products.



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