Origins of Tamils?[Where are Tamil people from?] PART :45

[Compiled by: Kandiah Thillaivinayagalingam]-
Devotional Statues
A devotional statue dating to 2600 B.C. of what scholars believe is a married couple. The gypsum statue was found buried beneath the floor of a shrine at Nippur in Iraq and mesures 3.5 inches wide at the bottom. The couple originally had feet, and the figures have eyes made of shell and lapis lazuli set in bitumen, a natural cement-like substance.The statues are usually carved with the hands clasped, right over left, at the chest or waist in a gesture of attentiveness.and were placed in temples to show an adherent’s devotion to their gods.These statues have impacted our lives today because we still worship God or God's. Also, we still all have religions and beliefs.
A Sumerian game board and playing pieces made of shell, bone, lapis lazuli, and red limestone. They were found in the Royal Cemetery at Ur in Iraq by Sir Leonard Woolley in the 1920s and date to the twenty-fifth century B.C.The game board measures about 10.5 inches long and 4.5 inches wide.The rules of the game as it was played around 2500BC are not know at all but the same boards were still in use a century or two before the birth of Christ and archeologists have discovered the rules for the game played at that time on some cuneiform tablet dated at 177/176BC. Here the number of players are 2 & Aim of the game to be the first to get all the counters around the board to the finish point.The players plays alternatively & The travels of counters are made following the throw of the dices.The path of the counters is illustrated above.The counters are allowed to jump over each others. If one falls on the same square that one counter of the opponent, it is send off the board and must start again from the beginning.The squares with a rosette allow the player to throw the dices again .

An irrigated field on the banks of the Euphrates River in Iraq. The irrigation canal connects to the river, which can be seen in the background.Because of the fertile soil provided by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the region had plenty of food to feed the people who lived there. This allowed the people to stop spending the majority of their time searching for food. They now had more time to spend creating a civilization.Once people could control the production of food and be assured of a reliable annual supply of it, their lives changed completely. Being settled in one place made it possible to domesticate animals in order to provide other sources of food and clothing.With more food available, more people could be fed. Populations therefore increased. The growing number of people available for more kinds of work led to the development of more complex social structures. With a food surplus, a community could support a variety of workers who were not farmers such as ensis,the ruler  of  the City-states,as well as priests, artists, craftsmen, and others.As villages grew, the accumulation of more numerous and substantial goods became possible. Heavier pottery replaced animal-skin gourds as containers for food and liquids. Cloth could be woven from wool and flax. Permanent structures made of wood, brick, and stone could be erected.People studied the movements of the moon, sun, and planets to calculate seasons. In so doing they created the first calendars. With a calendar it was possible to calculate the arrival of each growing season. Measurement of land areas was necessary if property was to be divided accurately. Measurements of amounts--for example, of seeds or grains--was also a factor in farming and housekeeping. Later came measures of value as commodity and money exchange became common.In this way,this Sumerian civilization was finally become responsible for many of first achievements.

Two fragments of an ancient Mesopotamian clay tablet containing geometry exercises and questions written in cuneiform. From 2600 BC onwards, the Sumerians wrote multiplication tables on clay tablets and dealt with geometrical exercises and division problems.Also Tessellations were used by the Sumerians (about 4000 BC) in building wall decorations formed by patterns of clay tiles.

An ancient Mesopotamian skull with three holes cut in it. Such holes are the result of a surgical procedure performed by ancient Sumerian doctors. This individual is believed to have survived the surgery, since the bone shows signs of healing.Also by examining the surviving medical tablets it is clear that there were two distinct types of professional medical practitioners in ancient Mesopotamia. The first type of practitioner was the ashipu,often called as a "sorcerer.",who  determined which god or spirits or ghosts was
causing the illness. The ashipu also attempted to determine if the disease was the result of some error or sin on the part of the patient and attempt to cure the patient by means of charms and spells that were designed to entice away or drive out the spirit causing the disease.The second type was the asu. He was a specialist in herbal remedies,who was frequently called "physician" because he dealt in what were often classifiable as empirical applications of medication. For example, when treating wounds the asu generally relied on three fundamental techniques: washing, bandaging, and making plasters. All three of these techniques of the asu appear in the world's oldest known medical document ( 2100 BC).:



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