Origins of Tamils?[Where are Tamil people from?] PART :75

 [Compiled by: Kandiah Thillaivinayagalingam]
The earliest Indian inventions emerged from the valley of the Indus River during the second half of the 3rd millennium B.C.The best-known sites are Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro;these are among the earliest examples of civic planning.Houses,markets,storage facilities, offices,and public baths were arranged in a grid like scheme.There was also a highly developed drainage system.They had many useful inventions and they are very important to us today.Some of them are the wheel,boat,sail,and writing.They were used for transportation and communication.

A button is as important as cloth and thread.You wouldn’t want to use Velcro[nylon fabric used as a fastening] in your shirts and jeans.You may prefer Button instead.But have you ever wondered where an invention as simple and essential as this came from? Who first came up with the ingenious idea of tucking a piece of plastic into a hole to hold our clothes together so that we wouldn’t have to tie pins all over our body?Well, you’d be surprised to know how old buttons actually are.They were invented between 2500-1700 BC, in one of the earliest civilizations of the Old World–the Indus Valley Civilization.The button,in fact,was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening,It is made of a curved shell.

Here,we have compiled a list of simple objects and inventions of everyday use that are over four thousands of years old from Indus valley civilization.

(1)They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.Their building bricks were very uniform making city planning easy.Excavations at Harappa,Mohenjo-daro and other sites of the Indus Valley Civilization have uncovered evidence of the use of "practical mathematics".In India a decimal system was already in place during the Harappan period as indicated by an analysis of the Harappan weights and measures.Weights corresponding to ratios of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 have been identified,as have scales with decimal divisions.A particularly notable characteristic of Harappan weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy.Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization period.Excavations at Lothal (2400 BC) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch—less than 2 millimeters

(2)This was the first civilization to incorporate urban sanitation systems.Personal hygiene seems to have been a high priority.Many of the buildings of the Indus Valley were built of sun-baked clay,a technique which is still used in India today,In 2001,archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh,Pakistan made the startling discovery that dentistry being practiced as far back as 7000 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization.This earliest form of dentistry involved curing tooth related disorders with bow drills operated,perhaps,by skilled bead craftsmen.the reconstruction of this ancient form of dentistry showed that the methods used were reliable and effective.Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.Planned urban townships existed 5000 years before.in Mohenjodaro and Harappa,now in Pakistan,where The Harappan house is an amazing example of a native people,without the benefit of technology,adapting to local conditions and intuitively producing an architecture eminently suited to the climate.The house was planned as a series of rooms opening on to a central courtyard. This courtyard served the multiple functions of lighting the rooms,acting as a heat absorber in summer and radiator in winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities.There were no openings toward the main street,thus ensuring privacy for the residents.In fact,the only openings in the houses are rather small - this prevented the hot summer sun heating the insides of the houses.

(3) Their art was highly advanced.Terracotta,steatite and bronze human and animal figurines with anatomically correct proportions have been found.Their jewelry was complex and considered beautiful by today's standards.Long carnelian beads were a specialty.Early evidence of dyeing comes from India where a piece of cotton dyed with a vegetable dye has been recovered from the archaeological site at Mohenjo-daro (3rd millennium BC]

(4) Transportation and trade were major goals of these people.Their trade network ran from Mesopotamia to northern and central India.Their empire was economic,not military.

(5) Indus Valley Civilization agriculture was based upon a highly productive method of raising,storing and transporting domesticated wheat and barley. Also Other crops were known.such as sesame.Despite the fact that the majority of the wild species of the sesame are native to sub-saharan Africa,Bedigian demonstrated that sesame was first domesticated in India at Harappa in the Indus Valley They also figured out how to raise domestic animals,including the humped cattle that we call Kangayam Cattle today.These are shown on some of the famous clay seals,along with that mysterious writing. Also the earliest archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization

(6) They had a written script,mostly used on inscribed seals.The language and scripts are still being investigated and are controversial.

(7) Formal religion was highly advanced and included burial and cremation of human remains.Some of the aspects of their religion have continued,almost unchanged,clear down to the present day in India.Some of the goddess figurines from the Indus Valley show paint,dark paint on the hair,red paint on the top of the head or the forehead.Women in India today still paint a red dot on their foreheads.

This civilizations have had no standing army,only had just a police type force & also their network of cities are without walls.It clearly demonstrate that they were not constantly at war with one another.That was something the civilizations around the Mediterranean never managed! Other Important Few Items listed below:


PART :76 WILL FOLLOW

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