Is Saivism the same as Hinduism[vaidika-dharma] or is it a different one?[Part:02]

Saivism presents itself as the world’s oldest religion, the roots of Siva worship back more than 5,000 years to the advanced Indus Valley civilization.and even mother goddess Korravai [Kali] can be identified with inanna of Sumerian civilization,the world oldest civilization.In the literature of the Sangam period too, in the South India, Siva has been mentioned.Many aspect of this religion are Dravidian pre-dating any Aryan or Vedic understandings.Siva is portrayed by Saivites as the compassionate One present everywhere and offering grace or liberation to those who serve Him. “The Lord is one. He is the supreme of all existences and pervades all….He is kindness and love. His kindness is bestowed upon the suffering souls through the medium of His grace.He is pure love and compassion, immanent and transcendent, pleased by human purity and spiritual practice..So,naturally,the founders and propagators of the Saiva religion and philosophy are broad minded and noble hearted.They taught us that "God is LOVE and LOVE is God"  ["அன்பே  சிவம்" "ANBE SIVAM." -"தென்னாடுடைய சிவனே போற்றி; என்னாட்டவர்க்கும் இறைவ போற்றி"  "Thennadudaiya Sivane potri; Ennattavarkkum iraiva potri"]
ie God and Love are not two, but identical! This saying, which permeates Tamil literary and social thought, is a revolutionary statement that departed from the contemporary opinion that love was a means to God (but not God itself, by implication).Our Saiva view of life is universal even 2000 years ago. The Tamils, as a race, have always evinced a broad outlook on life and have set a high premium for all humane virtues.They were
basking in the sunshine of culture and civilisation when more than half the globe was completely enveloped in darkness and weltering in savagery.Here is a poem by Kaniyan Pungundranar,from our Sangam Tamil classic  Puranaanooru, long before Julius Caesar had crossed the Rubicon in 49 B.C.,which will testify to you the clarity of expression,the universality of views and a comprehensive range of vision about the very fundamentals of life, enjoyed by this ancient race in that remote past .:"யாதும் ஊரே, யாவரும் கேளீர்" “Yaathum Uure, Yaavarum Keelir”

"All places are ours, all our kith and kin;
  Good and evil come, not caused by others;
  Pain and relief are brought likewise, not by others;
  Dying is not new; nor living gave us joy;
  Misery we hated out.  As in the flood,
  Caused by clouds that poured in torrents
  On a mountain top with lightning flash.
  A raft goes in the direction of the stream,
  So the swarm of lives move onward
  In the way of destiny.  This we have discerned
  From the teachings of sages strong in wisdom
  So we admire not the great; nor scoff at the churl."(Purananuru-192)

So,this says:"'every country is my own and all the people are my kinsmen.'" & also it is guided by the universal concepts ["ஒன்றே குலம் ஒருவனே தேவன்"  “Onre Kulam Oruvane Thevan”]"All humanity is one family, and God is but one!"Our  Thirukkural[திருக்குறள் ],outlined a four fold path of positive life-affirmation based on  Aram[அறத்துப்பால்/righteousness,] Porul[பொருட்பால்/ wealth],Inpam [காமத்துப்பால்/pleasure] and fulfillment[ வாழ்வில் நிறைவு அடைதல்] leading to a Saiva religious way of life without recourse to meaningless rituals and foolish blind faith.Though Thiruvalluar specifically not mentioned about fulfillment,He could have simply assumed that,If any one who followed the first three paths successfully will automatically fulfill his life."வையத்துவாழ்வாங்கு"  “Vaiathu valvangu" living well the earthly life is the aim. And Saivism has echoed and re-echoed the sentiments of well-being of all."எல்லோரும்  இன்புற்றிருக்க நினைப்பதுவே" "ellorum inbutrirukka ninaippathuve..." Let there be prosperity for all!. Also,thirumanthiram 2104 says:"ஒன்றே குலம் ஒருவனே தேவன்/ There is only one Human Sect and there is only one God" ie "one caste and one God only" or oneness of God and oneness of all creeds in the whole world and again in thirumanthiram 2962 says:"ஒன்றுகண் டீர்உல குக்கொரு தெய்வமும் ஒன்றுகண் டீர்உல குக்குயி ராவது/One the God for worlds all,One is He, the life of worlds all "  & by this he  united all Tamilians without caste discrimination.Any rationalist will accept it without any hesitation.So,"அன்பே  சிவம்"“Anbe Sivam” - “Love itself is God-Siva” is the central theme of Saivism.

On the other hand,The Hindu religion is thought to have originated with the Aryans.where most of the important deities were predominantly male,who personified forces and nature and were worshipped in elaborate sacrifices and incorporated fire and an inebriating drink called soma ("Drink of Strength") into them,performed only by Brahmins,the priestly class,sort of like the Druids[a priest,magician,or soothsayer in the ancient Celtic religion].The Aryans,who migrated down to the subcontinent from Central Asian steppes,composed religious texts beginning with the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda (ca.1500–1000 B.C.),which contained hymns to the gods and descriptions of the customs,behavior, and traditions of Aryan life.The Upanishads,composed later (700–500 B.C.),Also The caste system is believed to have been introduced in its preliminary form around 1500 B.C.It has been argued, Aryan conquerors gave the conquered  Dravidians ,lower status tasks.This caste system described in the Rig-Veda may have grown out of the enslavement of people from the Indus Valley by the Aryans.The Vedas refer to conquered “Dasas” or “Dasyi” (names meaning “slaves” and probably referring to the early Dravidian-speaking Indus people).Their social framework was composed mainly of the following groups : the Brahmana (priests), Kshatriya (warriors), Vaishya (agriculturists) and Shudra (workers). It was, in the beginning, a division of occupations; as such it was open and flexible. Much later, caste status and the corresponding occupation came to depend on birth, and change from one caste or occupation to another became far more difficult.Even  DNA studies of Indians have confirmed this .The Aryans also brought with them a new language, a patrilineal and patriarchal family system,where The birth of a son was welcome because he could later tend the herds, bring honour in battle, offer sacrifices to the gods, and inherit property and pass on the family name.and a new social order, built on the religious and philosophical rationales of varnashramadharma.All of these beliefs of Aryans were adopted as the foundation or core beliefs of Hinduism,However it developed further by intermixing of Aryan and Dravidian beliefs and aryanising dravidian gods.

[Kandiah Thillaivinayagalingam]

Part:03 Will follow


Post a Comment