FOOD HABITS OF TAMILS/ PART:11

[by: Kandiah Thillaivinayagalingam]
The Harappans who lived in the Indus Valley civilization did not pass down their recipes,but they had various Terracotta pots of all shapes and sizes were found at Mohenjo-daro and other Indus Valley sites.Pots were probably used to carry and store many different types of liquids and grains.Also,perforated pots,they found along with others,may have been used for cheese making.Plate with vertical sides.Copper and bronze plates were also found,probably used exclusively by wealthy upper class city dwellers.Their main staples were wheat and barley, which were presumably made into bread and perhaps also cooked with water as a gruel or porridge.In some places,particularly Gujarat,they also cultivated some native millets; possibly broomcorn millet, which may have been introduced from southern Central Asia;Though they fed wild rice to their cattle,and probably began to cultivate it,though rice does not become an important crop until Post-Harappan times.The Harappans grew lentils and other pulses (peas, chickpeas, green gram, black gram) also.The Harappans must have eaten a range of fruit, vegetables and spices:these included a variety of brassica,brown mustard
greens,coriander,dates,jujube,walnuts, grapes,figs;many others,such as mango,okra,caper, sugarcane,garlic,turmeric,ginger,cumin and cinnamon,were locally available and probably grown or gathered by the Harappans,but the evidence is lacking.However,fruits and vegetables remains found in pots and pottery illustrations prove that banana,date,gourd,pomegranate were in use. Sesame was grown for oil,and linseed oil may also have been used.The people of the valley were habituated in creating ornaments in the shape of various fruits which were found during excavation,further supporting these facts.The granaries found at some Harappan cities clearly indicate that cereals were produced in large quantity.Bones of wild species such as boar,deer,and gharial also known as the gavial, and the fish-eating crocodile, are also found in indus valley.Another interesting find is the banana,which was first cultivated in Papua New Guinea. It is not clear if banana was cultivated in the Harappan region or if it was obtained via trade with people in the East via the trading hubs of the ancient world.   
The people of the Indus Valley civilization were not all vegetarians.Along with the vegetarian food items
the people of Indus valley civilization also consumed meat that was evident from the fact that meat was included in the offerings made for the dead and there is also evidence that at least some people in Harappan sites ate beef.Also With the excavation of number of artefacts like sling balls of clay, copper fish hooks, the arrow heads, the flying knives etc strongly prove that these were required to kill and this also prove that,the Indus valley people were not only farmers,they were competent and efficient hunters and fishermen.Meat came mainly from cattle,but Included in this list are chicken,mutton, beef,pork.Buffaloes,sheep,goats and cows were reared for milk too. Along with that,they also hunted a wide range of wildfowl and wild animals such as deer,antelopes and wild boar.They also ate fish and shellfish from the rivers,lakes and the sea;as well as being eaten fresh,many fish were dried or salted.Along with fish,fruits & vegetables also dried for use in the harsh winters.– many bones and shells in hard form  from marine fish such as jack and catfish etc has been found in and around the houses of the Indus valley civilization, at Harappa, far inland.
PART :12 WILL FOLLOW

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